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A

ASP (Aplication Service Provider)

Company that provides shared computer applications to its clients.

ATM (Automated Teller Machine)

Commonly called Multibanco.

Acquirer

Organizations that establishes contracts with merchants (retailers, shopkeepers, hotels, rent-a-car, etc.) with the purpose of allowing the acceptance of cards (e.g. VISA cards) in the payment of goods and services, including withdrawal of money.

Active-X

Programming standard language, developed by Microsoft, that allow to create complex client applications, as well as access them through a browser. It competes with Java language.

Applet

Images that can be animated, used on sites.

Authorization

When the merchant is ready to make a manual transaction above the floor limit, he must call the Redunicre’s Authorization Centre and ask for the respective authorization code.

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B

B2B (Business to Business)

It is said of the e-commerce carried out between companies.

B2B exchanges

Generic expressions that can be used to characterize e-marketplaces, e-procurement sites and seller sites.

B2C (Business to Consumer)

It is said of the e-commerce performed between companies and consumers.

B2G (Business to Governement)

Also designated by B2A (Business to Government). It is said of the relationships between the government and companies through digital technologies.

Banner

The rectangular area of the screen that publicizes a brand, trying to attract the user to click on it and enter the correspondent site

Black list

A list sent every two weeks by Redunicre and that should be consulted in any manual transaction in which the Authorization Centre is not used (for transactions which the amount is below the floor limit). In this list are the Visa, Mastercard and Diners cards that have been stolen or target of fraud. If your client’s card number is on the black list, call Unicre immediately (21 313 29 29 - Authorization Centre).

Bookmark

Pointer to a web document that you save in a quick reference page (bookmark page).

Broker

An intermediary that puts buyer and seller in contact

Browser

A program, as Netscape or Microsoft Explorer, that allows to visualize web pages and surf the web (the same as a web browser).

Browsing

Method used to find and move through the information and pages of a website.

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C

C2B (Consumer to Business)

It is said of the e-commerce when the initiative comes from the consumer.

C2C (Consumer to Consumer)

It refers to the e-commerce that consumers trade between them, with the sponsorship of a broker. The most common situations are the auctions.

CVV / CVC 2

Also known as security code. It is a number consisting of three digits, printed on the back of the card, next to the number, on the right side of the signature panel of all Visa and Europay cards.

Chargeback

Return of a transaction by the card issuer to the acquirer.

Chat

Way of online communication by writing comments and responding to others that are doing the same.

Ciberespaço (Cyberspace)

Term used by William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer to describe the immense space formed by all the computers and services related.

Clickthrough

The act of clicking a banner or another advertisement, that redirects the user to the advertiser site.site do anunciante.

Contents

The information that constitutes the web page. Good contents are the success key factor to attract users to the site, keep them interested and incite future visits.

Cookie

Small text file kept in the user’s PC that allows his identification when he visits the corresponding site. Normally, they have information about the login, user configurations, etc.

Cracker

A person who tries to access confidential information through the Internet. In opposition to hackers, they do it for fun and to challenge themselves. They end up not pulling out any information.

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D

DOV (Data Over Voice)

Communication line that allows, as the name indicates, the POS and the telephone to function at the same time. Data and voice run at the same time in the same line without mutual interference.

Dedicated line

Faster communication line, with specific emitter and receiver. It is a line available only for one purpose.

Digital Certificate

A way of digital identification, as an electronic passport or identity card, which can be used to perform safe electronic transactions in open networks, sign digital documents, and provide other mechanisms for confidentiality purposes.

Domain

The same as webiste. Name of a network of computers with a common address (for example, at www.funet.fi and ftp.funet.fi the domain is funet.fi). The last term of a domain is the Top-level Domain.

Download

Programs, images or files transfer from a Server to Computer.

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E

EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation)

American entity created in July 1990 that analyses the legal and social problems related to the Internet, to guarantee that, with the appearance of the new technologies, the Constitution principles are still respected.

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F

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

File transfer protocol between two computers through the Internet.

Face-to-face transactions

The traditional transactions. Those performed in shops. In these, the card and the its holder are present.

Firewall

Security system between the computer/server and the Internet. The system allows sending the information and verifies the data reception, avoiding non-authorized accesses.

Floor limit

The amount of the transaction above which the merchant has to ask authorization to the acquirer. This is assigned to the merchant by the acquiring company.

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H

HTML (HyperText Markup Language)

Language used to define the text and layout of graphic Internet pages.

Hacker

A person that tries to access to confidential resources through the Internet without authorization. Usually they do it with licit purposes (for example, spread viruses, sell the obtained information or use it for their own benefit, etc.)

Hardware

Physical component of the computer equipment.

Homepage

Index page of a website that normally contains a menu with options and links to other resources within the site.

Hyperlink

Address through which, by clicking, we are led to the correspondent page somewhere in the web (the same as link).

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I

IP (Internet Protocol)

The Protocol which defines the format and sequence of the exchanging messages between computers on the Internet.

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

Communication tool that allows real time conversations, based on text, between two or more people connected at the same time on the Internet wherever they are.

ITV (Interactive TV)

Technology that joins TV and Internet, allowing the user an interactive participation on TV shows.

IVR (Interactive Voice Response)

Integration technology of computer, telephone, database server, fax and user, through which the user can connect and at the same time get the answer to his question, as long as his telephone is in the data base. This can happen through conversation, fax, email or in other ways.

Internet

The largest network of communications and information services in the world, consisting of a large number of other networks, local or non-local, using the IP protocol to communicate with each other.

Internet user

A person that consults or makes information available on the Internet.

Invoices

Forms used in manual machines and that allow merchants to perform manual transactions.

Issuer

Entity that issues the cards (usually a bank).

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J

Java

A programming language that allows the inclusion of small applets (images, animated or not) in web pages.

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K

Kiosk

The most recent definition of kiosk refers to public terminals that provide several services, as access to Internet, information about travelling, including ATM services. Their screens are touch and allow the user to access the network and provide information without a mouse or keyboard.

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L

Logout

Leaving a computer system or program.

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M

MIA-SET (Merchant Iniciated Authorisation – Secure Electronic Transaction)

An extension to the SET protocol that is characterized by the fact that the client can use his normal credit card and not a specific digital certificate for online transactions. This system allows the merchant to be digitally certified by the acquirer, enabling secure transactions with all credit cards, assuring the integrity of the message transmitted through the Internet.

MO/TO (Mail Order/Telephone Order)

Transactions make when the card is not at the local and in which the authorization is requested by the acquirer by mail, fax or telephone.

Mail lists

List of email addresses used to distribute messages automatically to a group of pre-registered users.

Manual machine

A machine provided by Redunicre to perform transactions when the POS does not work, when the merchant does not have a POS or every time that a credit card holder does not want to carry out the transaction electronically.

Modem

Device that allows to connect a computer to a telephone line so it can communicate with other computers through a telephone network.

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P

POS (Point of Sale) or TPA (Terminal de Pagamento Automático – Automatic Payment Terminal)

A terminal or device used at a point of sale to obtain an electronic authorization to a payment. It allows the acceptance of cards of exclusive electronic use.em ambiente eletrónico.

Payment Gateway

A combination of hardware and software that makes the connection between two different types of networks. It is a device operated by, or for, an acquirer, that processes the merchant’s payment messages.payment messages.

Payware

Software used by virtual merchants that manages the payments. It allows the exchange of secure electronic transactions between a SET browser, the merchant’s server and the payment gateway. It is used by merchants to process and generate SET messages.

Pin (Personal Identification Number)

Personal code, with 4 figures, given to the card holder by the emitting entity.

Plate of manual machine

Little plate in the manual machine that identifies the merchant in the manual transactions.

Portal

It is an Internet gateway. Lots of portals have evolved from search engines. What makes them portals is the fact that they provide other services beyond search. They are good options for news, games, geographic information, shopping, and moreover they are a good way of jumping to other addresses, through the directories they make available. Other portals were created to join different contents belonging to a same economic group.

Private key

An element of the asymmetric key pair, intended to be known only by its owner, to which the digital signature in the electronic document is opposed or a previous encrypted document with its correspondent public key is deciphered.

Protocol

A set of standardized rules that specifies the form, synchronization, sequence and the error checking in data communication that all PCs must follow in order to perform tasks between them.

Public key

An element of the asymmetric key pair, intended to be public, with which the digital signature made on the digital document by the asymmetric key pair holder is verified or an electronic document meant to be transmitted to the holder of the same pair of keys is encrypted.

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R

Register

Process through which the users submit information about themselves, to get access to exclusive contents of the website.

Remote transactions

Transactions that are performed without the presence of the card or its holder (for example, Internet sales, catalogue sales or purchases payment in ATM). In these cases, there is only the communication of the data of the card (through fax, mail, telephone, Internet, etc.)

Representation Agreement

Activation of the system of acceptance of credit cards in POS of the banks, as long as the merchant has a contract with Redunicre.

Rolls

The rolls for POS can be of two types: chemical (those consisting of a two-way paper) or thermic (single-track and printing two tickets).

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S

SET (Secure Electronic Transaction)

A protocol developed by VISA and its partners (American Express, MasterCard, IBM, Microsoft and Netscape) that guarantees secure transactions with a credit card on the Internet. It is based on the usage of digital certificates that create a trust system during the entire transaction, validating the card holder and the merchant. The confidentiality and security are guaranteed in the messages sent, as all the information is encrypted through a public key that, after sent, can only be decoded using a private key.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)

Encrypting technic used to hide information sent from a browser to a webserver, such as the credit card numbers used on the Internet.

Search engine

Tools that index the web pages of registered sites. The users can search these indexes typing the key words related to the information they want to find.

Seller sites

Virtual markets joining several buyers and one seller.

Server

A PC that administrates and provides programs to other PCs connected to the same network.

Site

Electronic document that is available on the Internet thanks to a browser, through a http protocol and that uses hypertext technics (text that branches and allows his reader to make choices). The same as website.

Software

Logic component of a computer (programs, applications, operative systems) that runs the hardware.

Switched line

Analogic line that uses a normal platform of a landline telecommunications operator.

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T

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

The communication protocol used and that allows the computers on the Internet to communicate with each other, regardless the platform used.

TPA (Terminal de Pagamento Automático - Automatic Payment Terminal) ou POS (Point of Sale)

See POS.

Top Level Domain

The last part of the domain/address. Each country has a top-level domain. For example: au – Australia; ca – Canada; de – Germany; es – Spain; fr – France; nl – The Netherlands; no – Norway; pt – Portugal; se – Sweden; uk – United Kingdom; us – United States of America. If the top-level domain is not a country code it is possible (but not mandatory) that the country is the USA. The north-American top-level domains are: com – commercial organizations; edu – universities; gov – US government agencies; mil – US military agencies; net – Internet services providers; org – non-profit organizations.

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U

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

The same as electronic address. It is the set of characters used by browsers (whether through http protocol or through other protocols) to identify a specific information page. It has a normalized structure, so each URL represents a unique address in the entire Internet. For example, the URL or address of the Redunicre homepage is http://www.redunicre.com.

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V

Virtual shopping

A website that joins several merchants with online stores in only one location, only one website.

Virtual store

Website with online trading operations.

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W

WWW (World Wide Web)

Subset of the Internet, where information is organized using hyperlinks, which allows the user, by clicking, to jump between images, watch videos, listen to audio files, go to other pages and other Web addresses. When the Internet services are not in www you can only use information in text format.

Web

The part of the Internet that supports a graphical user interface and that allows navigation in hypertext with a browser as Internet Explorer or Netscape.

Webdesign

Specific design for web contents.

Webserver

A system capable of providing continuous access to Internet, or to an internal network, storing and showing documents and files through the http protocol.

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X

XML (eXtensible Markup Language)

A language that allows a better control than HTML upon the structured information on webpages.

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